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 Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms


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CHAPTER I

PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

1.- Fundamental rights and freedoms

Whereas every person in Saint Lucia is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely-

a) life, liberty, security of the person, equality before the law and the protection of the law;

b) freedoms of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association; and

c) protection for his family life, his personal privacy, the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation,

the provisions of this Chapter shall have effect of the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in those provisions, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any person does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.

2.- Protection of right to life

(1) A person shall not be deprived of his life intentionally save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence under any law or which he has been convicted.

(2) A person shall not be regarded as having been deprived of his life in contravention of this section if he dies as the result of the use to such extent and on such circumstances as are permitted by law, of such force as is reasonably justifiable-

a) for the defence of any person from violence or for the defence of a property;

b) in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;

c) for the purpose or suppressing a riot, insurrection or mutiny; or

d) in order to prevent the commission by that person of a criminal offence.

or if he dies as the result of lawful act of war.

3.- Protection of right to personal liberty

(1) A person shall not be deprived of his personal liberty save as may be authorized by law in any of the following cases, that is to say:-

a) in consequence of his unfitness to plead to a criminal charge of in execution of the sentence or order of a court, whether established for Saint Lucia or some other country, in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted;

b) in execution of the order of the High Court or the Court of Appeal punishing him for contempt of the High Court or the Court of Appeal or of another court or tribunal;

c) in execution of the order of a court made to secure the fulfilment of any obligation imposed on him by law;

d) for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court;

e) upon a reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence under any law;

f) under the order of a court or with the consent of his parent or guardian, for his education or welfare during any period ending not later than the date when he attains the age or eighteen years;

g) for the purpose of preventing the spread of an infectious or contagious disease;

h) in the case of a person who is, or is reasonably suspected to be, of unsound mind, addicted to drugs or alcohol, or a vagrant, for the purpose of his case or treatment of the protection of the community;

i) for the purpose of preventing his unlawful entry into Saint Lucia, or for the purpose of effecting his expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal from Saint Lucia or for the purpose of restraining him while he is being conveyed through Saint Lucia in the course of his extradition or removal as a convicted prisoner from one country to another; or

j) to such extent as may be necessary in the execution of a lawful order requiring him to remain within a specified area within Saint Lucia, or prohibiting him form being within such an area, or to such extent as may be reasonably justifiable for the taking of proceedings against him with a view to the making of any such order or relating to such an order after it has been made or to such extent as may be reasonably justifiable for restraining him during any visit that he is permitted to make to any part of Saint Lucia in which, in consequence of any such order, his presence would otherwise be unlawful.

(2) Any person who is arrested or detained shall with reasonable promptitude and in any case no later than twenty-four hours after such arrest or detention be informed in a language that he understands of the reasons for his arrest or detention and be afforded reasonable facilities for private communication and consultation with a legal practitioner of his own choice and, in the case of a minor, with his parents or guardian.

(3) Any person who is arrested or detained-

a) for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court; or

b) upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence under any law

and who is not released, shall be brought before a court without undue delay and in any case not later than seventy-two hours after such arrest or detention.

(4) Where any person is brought before a court in execution of the order of a court in any proceedings or upon suspicion of his having committed or being about to commit an offence, he shall not be thereafter further held in custody in connection with those proceedings or that offence save upon the order of a court.

(5) If any person arrested or detained as mentioned in subsection (3)(b) of this section is not tried within a reasonable time, then without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him , he shall be released either unconditionally or upon reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial, and such conditions may include bail so long as it is not excessive.

(6) Any person who is unlawfully arrested or detained by any other person shall be entitled to compensation therefor from any other person or authority on whose behalf that other person was acting;

Provided that a judge, a magistrate or a justice of the peace or an officer of a court or a police officer shall not be under any personal liability to pay compensation under this subsection in consequence of any act performed by him in good faith in the discharge of the functions of his office and any liability to pay any such compensation in consequence of any such act shall be a liability of the Crown.

(7) For the purposes of subsection (1) a of this section a person charged before a court with a criminal offence in respect of whom a special verdict has been returned that he was guilty of the act or omission charged but was insane when he did the act or made the omission shall be regarded as a person who has been convicted of a criminal offence and the detention of a person in consequence of such a verdict shall be regarded as detention in execution of the order of a court.

4.- Protection from slavery and forced labour

(1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.

(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.

(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression "forced labour" does not include-

a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;

b) labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;

c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objection to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;

d) any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any accident or natural calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, t tee extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that accident or natural calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.

5.- Protection from inhuman treatment

No person shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading punishment or other treatment.

6.- Protection from deprivation of property

(1) No property of any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right over property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired, except for a public purpose and except where provision is made by a law applicable to that taking of possession or acquisition for the prompt payment of full compensation.

(2) Every person having an interest in or right over property that is compulsorily taken possession of or whose interest in or right over any property is compulsorily acquired shall have a right of direct access to the High Court for-

a) determining the nature and extent of that interest or right;

b) determining whether that taking of possession or acquisition was duly carried out in accordance with a law authorizing the taking of possession or acquisition;

c) determining what compensation he is entitled to under the law applicable to that taking of possession or acquisition;

d) obtaining that compensation:

Provided that if Parliament so provides in relation to any matter referred to in paragraph (a) or (c) of this subsection the right of access shall be by way of appeal (exercisable as of right at the instance of the person having the interest in or right over the property) form a tribunal or authority, other than the High Court having jurisdiction under any law to determine that matter.

(3) The Chief Justice may make rules with respect to the practice and procedure of the High Court or, subject to such provision as may have been made in that behalf by Parliament, with respect to the practice and procedure of any other tribunal or authority in relation to the jurisdiction conferred on the High Court by subsection (2) of this section or exercisable by the other tribunal or authority for the purposes of that subsection (including rules with respect to the time within which applications or appeals to the High Court or applications to the other tribunal or authority may be brought).

(4) No person who is entitled to compensation under this section shall be prevented from remitting, within a reasonable time after he has received any amount of that compensation in the form of a sum of money or, as the case may be, has received any such amount in some other form and has converted any of that amount into a sum of money, the whole of that sum of money (free from any deduction, charge or tax made or levied in respect of its remission) to any country of his choice outside Saint Lucia.

(5) Nothing contained in or done under that authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (4) of this section to the extent that the law in question authorizes-

a) The attachment, by order of any amount of compensation to which a person is entitled in satisfaction of the judgment of a court or pending the determination of civil proceedings to which he is a party;

b) The imposition of reasonable restrictions on the manner in which any sum of money is to be remitted; or

c) the imposition of reasonable restrictions upon the remission of any sum of money in order to prevent or regulate the transfer to a country outside Saint Lucia of capital raised in Saint Lucia or in some other country or derived from the natural resources of Saint Lucia.

(6) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) of this section-

a) to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of any property, interest or right-

i) in satisfaction of any tax, rate or due;

ii) by way of penalty for breach of any law or forfeiture in consequence of breach of any law;

iii) as an incident of a lease, tenancy, mortgage, hypothec, charge, bill of sale, pledge or contract;

iv) in the execution of judgements or orders of a court in proceedings for the determination of civil rights or obligations;

v) in circumstances where it is reasonably necessary so to do because the property is in a dangerous state, or likely to be injurious to the health of human beings, animals or plants;

vi) in consequence of any law with respect to the limitation of actions; or

vii) for so long only as may be necessary for the purposes of any examination, investigation, trial or inquiry or, in the case of land, for the purposes of the carrying out thereon of work of soil conservation or the conservation of other natural resources or work relating to agricultural development o improvement (being work relating to such development o r improvement that the owner or occupier of the land has been required, and has without reasonable excuse refused or failed,to carry out).

and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society; or

b) to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of any of the following property (including an interest in or right over property), that is to say-

i) enemy property;

ii) property of a deceased person, a person of unsound mind or a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years, for the purpose of its administration for the benefit of the persons entitled to the beneficial interest therein;

iii) property of a person adjudged bankrupt or a body corporate in liquidation, for the purpose of its administration for the benefit of the creditors of the bankrupt or body corporate and, subject thereto, for the benefit of other persons entitled to the beneficial interest in the property; or

iv) property subject to a trust, for the purpose of vesting the property in persons appointed as trustees under the instrument creating the trust or by a court or, by order of a court, for the purpose of giving effect to the trust.

(7) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law enacted by Parliament shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the compulsory taking of possession of any property, or the compulsory acquisition of any interest in or right over property, where that property, interest or right is held by a body corporate established by law for public purposes in which no monies have been invested other than monies provided by Parliament.

(8) In this section-

"property" means any land or other thing capable of being owned or held in possession and includes any right relating thereto. Whether under a contract, trust or law or otherwise and whether present or future, absolute or conditional;

"acquisition", in relation to an interest in or right over property, means transferring that interest or right to another person or extinguishing or curtailing that interest or right.

7.- Protection from arbitrary search or entry

(1) Except with his own consent, a person shall not be subjected to the search of his person or his property or the entry by others on his premises.

(2) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision-

a) that is reasonably required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town and country planning, the development an d utilization of mineral resources or the development or utilization of any property for a purpose beneficial to the community;

b) that is reasonably required for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons;

c) that authorizes an officer or agent of the Government, a local government authority or a body corporate established by law for public purposes to enter on the premises of any person in order to inspect those premises or anything thereon for the purpose of any tax, rate or due or in order to carry out work connected with any property that is lawfully on those premises and that belongs to the Government or to that authority or body corporate, as the case may be; or

d) that authorizes, for the purpose of enforcing the judgment or order of a court in any civil proceedings, the search of any person or property by order of a court or entry upon any premises by such order,

and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, anything done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

8.- Provision to secure protection of the law

(1) If any person is charged with a criminal offence, then, unless the charge is withdrawn, the case shall be afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial court established by law.

(2) Every person who is charged with a criminal offence-

a) shall be presumed to be innocent until he is proved or has pleaded guilty;

b) shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands and detail, of the nature of the offence charged;

c) shall be given adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;

d) shall be permitted to defend himself before the court in person or, at his own expense, by a legal practitioner of his own choice;

e) shall be afforded facilities to examine in person or by his legal representative the witnesses called by the prosecution before the court, and to obtain the attendance and carry out the examination of witnesses to testify on his behalf before the court on the same conditions as those applying to witnesses called by the prosecution; and

f) shall be permitted to have without payment the assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand the language used at the trial,

and except with his own consent the trial shall not take place in his absence unless he so conducts himself as to render the continuance of the proceedings in his presence impracticable and the court has ordered him to be removed and the trial to proceed in his absence:

Provided that the trial may take place in his absence in any case in which it is so provided by a law under which he is entitled to adequate notice of the charge and the date, time and place of the trail and to a reasonable opportunity of appearing before the court.

(3) When a person is tried for any criminal offence, the accused person or any person authorized by him in that behalf shall, if he so requires and subject to payment of such reasonable fee as may be prescribed by law, be given within a reasonable time after judgment a copy for the use of the accused person of any record of the proceedings made by or on behalf of the court.

(4) A person shall not be held to be guilty of a criminal offence on account of any act or omission that did not, at the time it took place, constitute such an offence, and no penalty shall be imposed for any criminal offence that is severer in degree or description than the maximum penalty that might have been imposed for that offence at the time when it was committed.

(5) A person who shows that he has been tried by a competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted shall not again be tried for that offence or for any other criminal offence of which he could have been convicted at the trial for that offence, save upon the order of a superior court in the course of appeal or review proceeding relating to the conviction or acquittal.

(6) A person shall not be tried for a criminal offence if he shows that he has been pardoned for that offence.

(7) A person who is tried for a criminal offence shall not be compelled to give evidence at the trial.

(8) Any court or other authority prescribed by law for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation shall be established by law and shall be independent and impartial; and where proceedings for such a determination are instituted by any person before such a court or other authority, the case shall be given a fair hearing within a reasonable time.

(9) Where the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation has been determined in proceedings in any court or before any other authority any party to those proceedings shall, if he so requires and subject to payment of such reasonable fee as may be prescribed by law, be entitled to obtain within a reasonable time after the judgment or other determination a copy of any record of the proceedings made by or on behalf of the court or other authority.

(10) Except with the agreement of all the parties thereto, all proceedings of every court and proceedings for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation before any other authority, including the announcement of the decision of the court or other authority, shall be held in public.

(11) Nothing in subsection (10) of this section shall prevent the court or other adjudicating authority from excluding from the proceedings persons other than the parties thereto and the legal practitioners representing them to such extent as the court or other authority-

a) may by law be empowered to do and may consider necessary or expedient in circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice or in interlocutory proceedings or in the interests of public morality, the welfare of persons under the age of eighteen years or the protection of the private lives of persons concerned in the proceedings; or

b) may by law be empowered or required to do in the interests of defence, public safety or public order.

(12) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of-

a) subsection (2) (a) of this section to the extent that the law in question imposes upon any person charged with a criminal offence the burden of proving particular facts;

b) subsection (2) (e) of this section to the extent that the law in question imposes reasonable conditions that must be satisfied if witnesses called to testify on behalf of an accused person are to be paid their expenses out of public funds; or

c) subsection (5) of this section to the extent that the law in question authorizes a court to try a member of a disciplined force for a criminal offence notwithstanding any trial and conviction or acquittal of that member under the disciplinary law of that force, so, however, that any court so trying such a member and convicting him shall in sentencing him to any punishment, take into account any punishment awarded him under that disciplinary law.

(13) In the case of any person who is held in lawful detention the provisions of subsection (1), paragraphs (d) and (e) of subsection (2) and subsection (3) of this section shall not apply in relation to his trial for a criminal offence under the law regulating the discipline of persons held in such detention.

(14) In this section "criminal offence" means a criminal offence under a law.

9.- Protection of freedom of conscience

(1) Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience, including freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance.

(2) Except with his own consent (or, if he is a person under the age of eighteen years, the consent of his guardian) a person attending any place of education, detained in any prison or corrective institution or serving in a naval, military or air force shall not be required to receive religious instruction or to take part in or attend any religious ceremony or observance if that instruction ceremony or observance relates to a religion which is not his own.

(3) Every religious community shall be entitled, at its own expense, to establish and maintain places of education and to manage any place of education which it maintains; and no such community shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for persons of that community in the course of any education provided by that community whether or not it is in receipt of a government subsidy or other form of financial assistance designed to meet in whole or in part the cost of such course of education.

(4) A person shall not be compelled to take any oath which is contrary to his religion or belief or to take any oath in a manner which is contrary to his religion or belief.

(5) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision which is reasonably required-

a) in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health;

b) for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons, including the right to observe and practice any religion without the unsolicited intervention of members of any other religion; or

c) for the purpose of regulating educational institutions in the interests of the persons who receive or may receive instruction in them,

and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

(6) References in this section to a religion shall be construed as including references to a religious denomination, and cognate expressions shall be construed accordingly.

10.- Protection of freedom of expression

(1) Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference (whether the communication be tot he public generally or to any person or class of persons) and freedom from interference with his correspondence.

(2) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provisions-

a) that is reasonably required in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health;

b) that is reasonably required for the purpose of protecting the reputation, rights and freedoms of to the persons or the private lives of persons concerned in legal proceedings, preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, maintaining the authority and independence of the courts or regulating the technical administration or the technical operation of telephony, telegraphy, posts wireless broadcasting or television; or

c) that imposes restrictions upon public officers that are reasonably required for the proper performance of their functions,

and except so far as that provisions or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

11.- Protection of freedom of assembly and association

(1) Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to trade unions or other associations for the protection of his interests or to form or belong to political parties or other political associations.

(2) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision-

a) that is reasonable required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health;

b) that is reasonable required for the purpose of protecting the rights of freedoms of other persons; or

c) that imposes restrictions upon public officers that are reasonably required for the proper performance of their functions,

and except so far as that provision or, as the case maybe, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

12.- Protection of freedom of movement

(1) A person shall not be deprived of his freedom of movement that is to say, the right to move freely throughout Saint Lucia, the right to reside in any part of Saint Lucia the right to enter Saint Lucia, the right to leave Saint Lucia and immunity form expulsion form Saint Lucia.

(2) Any restriction on a person's freedom of movement that is involved in this lawful detention shall not be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section.

(3) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision_

a) for the imposition of restrictions on the movement or residence within Saint Lucia of any person or non any person's right to leave Saint Lucia that are reasonably required in the interest of defence, public safety or public order;

b) for the imposition of restrictions, by order of a court, on the movement or residence within Saint Lucia or on the right to leave Saint Lucia of persons generally or any class of persons in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health or, in respect of the right to leave Saint Lucia, of securing compliance with any international obligation of the Government particulars of which have been laid before the Senate and the House and except so far as tat provision or , as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society;

c) for the imposition of restrictions, by order of a court, on the movement or residence within Saint Lucia of any person or on any person's right to leave Saint Lucia either in consequence of his having been found guilty of a criminal offence under a law or for the purpose of ensuring that he appears before a court at a later date for trial of such a criminal offence or of proceeding preliminary to trial or for proceedings relating to his extradition or lawful removal from Saint Lucia;

d) for the imposition of restriction on the freedom of movement of any person who is not a citizen;

e) for the imposition of restriction on the acquisition on the acquisition or use by any person of land or other property in Saint Lucia;

f) for the imposition of restrictions upon the movement of resident within Saint Lucia or on the right to leave Saint Lucia of any public officer that are reasonably required for the proper performance of his functions;

g) for the removal of a person from Saint Lucia to be tried or punished in some other country for a criminal offence under the law of that other country of to undergo imprisonment in some other country in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence under a law of which he has been convicted; or

h) for the imposition of restrictions on the right of any person to leave Saint Lucia that are reasonably required in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligations imposed on that person by law.

and except so far as that provision or as case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

(4) if any person whose freedom of movement has been restricted by virtue of such a provision as is referred to in subsection (3)(a) of this section so request at any time during the period of that restriction not earlier than twenty-one days after the order was made or three months after he last made such a request, as the case may be, his case shall be review by an independent and impartial tribunal presided over by a person appointed by the Chief Justice from among persons who are legal practitioners.

(5) On any review by a tribunal in pursuance of subsection (49 of this section of the case of any person whose freedom of movement has been restricted, the tribunal may make recommendations concerning the necessity or expediency of the continuation of that restriction to the authority by whom it was ordered and, unless it is otherwise provided by law, that authority shall be obliged to act in accordance with any such recommendations.

13.- Protection from discrimination on grounds of race, etc

(1) Subject to the provisions of subsection (4), (59 and 87) of this section, no law shall make any provisions that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

(2) Subject to the provisions of subsection 86), (7) and (8) of this section, no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person or authority.

(3) In this section, the expression "discriminatory" means affording different treatment to different person attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by sec, race place of origin, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such descriptions are subject to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are nor accorded to persons of another such descriptions.

(4) Subsection 81) of this section shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

a) for the appropriation of public revenues or other public funds;

b) with respect to persons who are not citizens;

c) for the application, in the case of persons of any such description as is mentioned in subsection (3) of this section (or of persons connected with such persons), of the law with respect to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other like matters which is the personal law of persons of that description;

d) whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in subsection (3) of this section may be subject to any disability or restriction or may be accorded any privileges or advantage that, having regard to its nature and to special circumstance pertaining t those persons or to person of any other such description, is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

(5) Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) of this section the extent that it makes provisions with respect to standards or qualifications (not being standard or qualification specifically relating to sex, race, place of origin, political opinions, colour or creed) to be required of any person who is appointed to or to act in any office or employment.

(6) Subsection (2) of this section shall not apply to anything which is expressly or by necessary implication authorized to be done by any such provision of law as is referred to in subsection (4) or subsection (5) of this section.

(7) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section the extent that the law in question makes provision whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in subsection (3) of this section may be subject to any restriction as is mentioned in subsection 83) of this section may be subjected to any restriction on the rights and freedom guaranteed by sections 7, 9, 10, 11 and 12 of this Constitution, being such a restriction as is authorized by section 7(2), section 9(5)0, section 10(2), section 1182) or paragraph (a), (b) or (h) of section 12(3), as the case may be.

(8) Nothing contained in subsection (2) of this section shall affect any discretion relating to the institution, conduct or discontinuance of civil or criminal proceedings in any court that is vested in any person by or under this Constitution or any other law.

14.- Emergency powers

(1) Without prejudice to the powers of Parliament, but subject to the provisions of this section, where any period of public emergency exists the Governor-general may, due regard being had to the circumstances of any situation likely to arise or exist during such period, make regulations for the purpose of dealing with that situation and issue orders and instruction for the purpose of the exercise of any powers conferred on him or any other person by any law referred to in subsection(3) of this section or instrument made under this section or any such law.

(2) Without prejudice to the generally of subsection (1) of this section regulations made under that subsection may make provision for the detention of persons.

(3) A law enacted by Parliament that is passed during a period of public emergency and is expressly declared to have effect only during that period or any regulation made under subsection (1) of this section shall have effect eve though inconsistent with section 3 or 13 of this Constitution except in so far as its provisions may be shown not to be reasonably justifiable for the purpose of dealing with the situation that exists during that period.

15.- Protection of persons detained under emergency laws

(1) When a person is detained by virtue of any such law as is referred to in section 14 of this Constitution the following provisions shall apply, that is to say:-

a) he shall, with reasonable promptitude and in any case not more than seven days after the commencement of his detention, be informed in a language that he understands and in detail of the grounds upon which he is detained and furnished with a written statement in English specifying those grounds in detail;

b) not more than fourteen days after the commencement of his detention, a notification shall be published in the Official Gazette sating that he has been detained and giving particulars of the provisions of law under which his detention is authorized;

c) not more than one month after the commencement of his detention and thereafter during his detention at intervals of not more than three months, his case shall be reviewed by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law and presided over by a person appointed by the Chief Justice from among persons who are legal practitioners;

d) he shall be afforded reasonable facilities for private communication and consultation with a legal practitioner of his own choice who shall be permitted to make representations to the tribunal appointed for the review of the case of the detained person; and

e) at the hearing of his case by the tribunal appointed for the review of his case he shall be permitted to appear in person or to be represented by a legal practitioner of his own choice.

(2) On any review by a tribunal in pursuance of this section of the case of a detained person, the tribunal may make recommendations concerning the necessity or expediency of continuing his section to the authority by which it was ordered by, unless it is otherwise provided by law, that authority shall not be obliged to act in accordance with any such recommendations.

(3) Nothing contained in subsection (1)(d) or subsection (1)(e) of this section shall be construed as entitling a person to legal representation at public expense.

16.- Enforcement of protective provisions

(1) If any person alleges that any of the provision of sections 2 to 15 inclusive of this Constitution has been, is being or is likely to be contravened in relation to him (or, in the case of a person who is detained, if any other person alleges such a contravention in relation to the detained person), then, without prejudice to any other action with respect to the same matter which is lawfully available, that person (or that other person) may apply to the High Court for redress.

(2) The High Court shall have original jurisdiction-

a) to hear and determine any application made by any person in pursuance of subsection (1) of this section; and

b) to determine any question arising in the case of any person which is referred to it in pursuance of subsection (3) of this section.

and may make such declarations and orders, issue such writs and give such directions as it may consider appropriate for the purpose of enforcing or securing the enforcement of any of the provisions of sections 2 to 15 (inclusive) of this Constitution:

Provided that the High Court may decline to exercise its powers under this subsection if it is satisfied that adequate means of redress for the contravention alleged are or have been available to the person concerned under any other law.

(3) If in any proceedings in any court (other than the Court of Appeal of the High Court or a court-martial) any question arises as to the contravention of any of the provisions of sections 2 to 15 (inclusive) of this Constitution, the person presiding in that court may, and shall if any party to the proceedings so requests, refer the question to the High Court unless, in his opinion, the raising of the questions merely frivolous or vexatious.

(4) Where any question is referred to the High Court in pursuance of subsection (3) of this section, the High Court shall give its decision upon the question and the court in which the question arose shall dispose of the case in accordance with that decision, or , if that decision is the subject of an appeal to the Court of Appeal or to Her Majesty in Council, in accordance with the decision of the Court of Appeal or, as the case may be, of Her Majesty in Council.

(5) The High Court shall have such powers in addition to those conferred by this section as may be conferred upon it by Parliament for t purpose of enabling it more effectively to exercise the jurisdiction conferred upon it by this section.

(6) The Chief Justice may make rules with respect to the practice and procedure of the High Court in relation to the jurisdiction and powers conferred on it by or under this section (including rules with respect to the time within which applications may be brought and references shall be made to the High Court).

17.- Declaration of emergency

(1) The Governor-General may, by proclamation which shall be published in the Official Gazette, declare that a state of emergency exists for the purposes of this Chapter.

(2) A proclamation under this section shall not be effective unless it contains a declaration that the Governor-General is satisfied-

a) that a public emergency has arisen as a result of the imminence of a state of war between Saint Lucia and a foreign state;

b) that a public emergency has arises as a result of the occurrence of any earthquake, , hurricane, flood, fire, outbreak of pestilence or of infectious disease, or other calamity whether similar to the foregoing or not; or

c) that action has been taken, or is immediately threatened, by any person, of such a nature and on so extensive a scale, as to be likely to endanger the public safety or to deprive the community or any substantial portion of the community of supplies or services essential to life.

(3) Every declaration of emergency shall lapse-

a) in the case of a declaration made when Parliament is sitting, at the expiration of a period of seven days beginning with the date of publication of the declaration; and

b) in any other case, at the expiration of a period of twenty-one days beginning with the date of publication of the declaration.

unless it has in the meantime been approved by resolutions of the Senate and the House.

(4) A declaration of emergency may at any time be revoked by the Governor-General by proclamation which shall be published in the Official Gazette.

(5) A declaration of emergency that has been approved by resolutions of the Senate and the House in pursuance of subsection (3) of his section shall remain in force so long as both those resolutions remain in force and no longer.

(6) A resolution of the Senate or the House passed for the purposes of this section shall remain in force for twelve months or such shorter period as may be specified therein:

Provided that any such resolution may be extended from time to time by a further such resolution, each extension not exceeding twelve months from the date of the resolution effecting the extension; and any such resolution may be revoked at any time by a further resolution.

(7) A resolution of the House for the purposes of subsection (3) of this section and a resolution of the House extending any such resolution shall not be passed in the House unless it is supported by the votes of majority of all the members of the House.

(8) Any provision of this section that a declaration of emergency shall lapse or cease to be in force at any particular time is without prejudice to the making of a further such declaration whether before or after that time.

18.- Interpretation and savings

(1) In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires-

"contravention" in relation to any requirement, includes a failure to comply with that requirement, and cognate expressions shall be construed accordingly;

"court" means any court of law having jurisdiction in Saint Lucia other than a court established by a disciplinary law, and includes Her Majesty in Council and in section 2 and 4 of this Constitution a court established by a disciplinary law;

"disciplinary law" means a law regulating the discipline of any disciplined force;

"disciplined force" means_

a) a naval, military or air force;

b) the Police Force;

c) a prison service; or

d) any such other force or service as may be prescribed by Parliament.

"legal practitioner" means a person entitled to be in or to enter Saint Lucia and entitled to practice as a barrister in Saint Lucia or except in relation to proceedings before a court in which a solicitor has nor right of audience, entitled to practice as a solicitor in Saint Lucia;

"member", in relation to a disciplined force, includes any person who, under the law regulating the discipline of that force, is subject to that disciplined.

(2) In this Chapter "period of public emergency" means any period during which-

a) Her Majesty is at war, or

b) there is in force a proclamation by the Governor-General declaring that a state of public emergency exists; or

c) there is in force a resolution of the House supported by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all the members of the House declaring that democratic institutions in Saint Lucia are threatened by subversion.

(3) In relation to any person who is a member of a disciplined force of Saint Lucia, nothing contained in or done under the authority of the disciplinary law of that force shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of any of the provisions of this Chapter other than sections 2, 4 and 5 of this Constitution.

(4) In relation to any person who is a member of a disciplined force of a country other than Saint Lucia that is lawfully present in Saint Lucia, nothing contained in or done under the authority of the disciplinary law of that force shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of any of the provisions of this Chapter.

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