Organize service in identifiable functional
units defined on the basis of output as perceived by clients
authority for action at all levels- institutional, local , national, regional
Establish an authority figure in each unit at all levels. This head will be accountable
for the quality of care provided
Establish professional self-regulatory bodies (peer review) for medical and nursing
Establish professional staff regulations
Establish quality units that are multidisciplinary and representative at different
levels within institutions
Identify indicators of standards and set time frames within which to achieve those
Develop appropriate standards of care and ultimately a patient charter of rights and
Document a complaints resolution mechanism that proceeds in a hierarchical manner e.g.
peer review, administration, Ministry of Health, licensing and accreditation body.
Make available to all heads three main categories of information i.e. financial,
clinical and administrative.
Institute an appropriate information system that provides timely, quality information
on process and outcome indicators to allow for standard development and monitoring within
Formalize mechanisms to improve communications: